Ha-Ni tribe in China

Ha-Ni is a hilltribe in China with a population of around 1,440,000 (as of 2000). 9.99 percent of the Ha-Ni people live in the Ai-Lao-Zan and Ou-Liang-Zan mountains south of Yunnan.  The remaining Ha-Ni populations are located between the Red and Laan-Chang (Khong) rivers in the Yuan-Jeang, Mor-Jeang, Lwu-Chun, Jin-Ping and Jeang-Chueng districts. In Sue-Moa as Sib-Song-Panna and Lan-Chang. Because of of the abundant resources available, the Ha-Ni settles about 800 to 2,500 meters above sea level. They is the professional in growing plant a step specially

Like the Eer and Lahu peoples, the Ha-Ni people originated from the nomadic Chiang people who moved south from north Tibet. Around 3 BC, the Ha-Ni lived in the lowlands close to Se-Chuan’s Ta-Tu and Hya-Long rivers before moving to live in Ai-Lao-Zan and U-Liang-Zan mountain in 7 BC. The Ha-Ni remains in Ao-Lao-Zan and U-Liang-Zan mountains today. During the control of the Yuan-Ming and Ching dynasties, Ha-Nitribes leader have to descend Tu-Sue (the position of ethnics leader in Ming and Ching dynasty)

Ha-Ni builds their three-storey homes of clay, bamboo and grass - the ground floor is used for animal husbandry, the second for living and the third for a barn. The Ha-Ni people respect their gods and ancestors, believing that every thing in the world has spirit. They speak a language descended from the Sino-Tibetan Family with 3 languages as Ha-Ya, Bee- Kha, How-Pai and Ha-Aei. Although the Ha-Ni language did not have alphabets originally, the alphabet was created in 1957 using Latin.   

The Ha-Ni’s dresses vary with age. Boys wear circle hats and black dresses without accessories. Girl wear circle hats decorated with silver and beads. They add more accessories to their outfits with ages. After the age of fifteen, outfits worn by both sexes change. Men wrap their heads in black cloth adorned with beads and aigrettes. In addition, they put on silver necklaces and decorate shirttails with silver as well. Women, on the other hand, wear a cylindrical hat decorated with silver and breads, wear “La-Sia” the cloth anticipates the chest that decorates with the siver coin. Cover them with a colorfully embroidered coat. This embroidery is known as “Ker-Pang”

Both men and women continue to accessorize their outfits until marriage and childbirth, following which, they remove these colorful accessories. After the age of forty-five, Ha-Ni men gather their silver accessories to hand down to his children. Similarly, women remove accessories from their hats and decorations that anticipate the chest goes out.

Throughout their lives, Ha-Ni people will have only one husband or wife and will not marry within the same lineage. Once the Ha-Ni man has decided on his spouse, he will inform his parents and have a matchmaker ask for the woman’s hand in marriage.  A simple wedding ceremony will be held with alcohol and various meats. In some areas, this ceremony resembles that of the Hun people. 

The brides will song “Ku-Jea-Ker” when she will marry. In the Hong-Her area, the Ha-Ni will choose a pretty girl to walk beside the bride to the wedding ceremony. Should the couple divorce, the woman will return her dowry to her husband’s family and must not contact him again. Their child will live with father. After 1949 when they have China country and they know about China, who would like to marry or divorce will past the law process.

The traditional of Ha-Ni people that pass on from generation to generation are the festival in sixth of month and some area has a small cerebration as Huang-Fan-Jea, Hyang-Ann-Na. New rice festival, start from Dragon day until Monkey day around 6 days. These ceremonies have the details much more than other cerebrations. It similar to Chinese New Year. The first day of the festival Ha-Ni people will clean their community and wear the fully costumes. The hat and the clothes have to decorate with the silvers. In the morning, the women pound rice to make Tuan-Jue-Mean. The men kill pigs and cow to cook. Some families do not have breakfast or kill one chicken to eat in their family, this show that they have unite. At noon, everybody go to  the village center to raise the swing ceremony and the evening will have the campfire and everybody sit around the bonfire, the older will sing a song “Ha-Pa-Kha” and “Guen-Gu-Teaw” that is the Akha native song. The men play the musical instruments, women dancing. All of the people have joyful.

The father is the leader of the family. After marriage, he will leave his parents’ home to live on separate property. When pregnant, his wife will live temporarily in his parent’s home, but only his mother and aunt can live in the house with her. The women will crotchet clothes and hats for her unborn child, and must exercise during this time to ensure easy delivery. When she is ready to deliver, her mother-in-law will bless her with an easy delivery.

The second day after the child is born; the child’s father’s mother will light the bonfire for burn placenta and keep it in the bamboo tube. The “Ju-Jue-Lien-Hming” ceremony is held on the third day where the child is named using the last syllable of its father’s name.. On the twelfth day after giving birth, the baby is showered with warm water by its mother. After a month, the baby’s hair must be cut. Until the fifteenth day after child birth, Ha-Ni women avoid sour, fried and oily foods, as well as beef, duck, goose, chicken, duck’s eggs and ginger.